Dictionary - Trading
# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

100-Day Moving Average

The 100-day moving average is a popular technical indicator which investors use to analyze price trends.It is simply a security's average closing price over the last 100 days. Read more

150-Day Moving Average

The 150-day moving average is a popular technical indicator which investors use to analyze price trends.It is simply a security's average closing price over the last 150 days. Read more

200-Day Moving Average

The 200-day moving average is a popular technical indicator which investors use to analyze price trends.It is simply a security's average closing price over the last 200 days. Read more

50 Day Moving Average

The 50-day moving average (also referred to as “50 DMA” is a popular technical indicator used by investors to analyze price trends.It’s simply a security's average closing price over the previous 50 days. Read more

Accelerated Vesting

Accelerated vesting occurs when a stock option becomes exercisable earlier than originally scheduled. For example, let's assume that John Doe receives options to buy 2,000 shares of Company XYZ, his employer, for $10 a share. Read more

Accretive Acquisition

An accretive acquisition is an acquisition that increases the acquirer's earnings per share. Let's assume Company XYZ has EPS of 25 cents this year. Read more

After the Bell

After the bell is a phrase referring to the end of an exchange's daily trading session. Let's say that Company XYZ wants to announce the sudden departure of its CEO and the appointment of the CFO to take her place. Read more

American Option

An American option is a put option or call option that can be exercised at any time on or before its expiration date.  For example, an investor holding an American option that expires on the last Friday in March has the right to exercise that option at any time on or before that date. Since the option price moves in sync with the underlying asset, the value of the option may rise and fall multiple times over the life of the contract. Read more

Arms Index (Trin)

The Arms Index (Trin) uses the ratio of advancing issues to declining issues to signal when the market is deeply overbought or oversold. The Arms Index is named after its designer, Richard Arms. Read more

Ascending Triangle

The ascending triangle is marked by two significant technical features.At its top, there is a line of resistance. Read more

Asset-or-Nothing Call Option

An asset-or-nothing call option either pays the value equal to one unit of the underlying asset if that asset is above the strike price or pays nothing if the asset is below the strike price at expiration. An asset-or-nothing call option, also known as a binary option, specifies two possible outcomes. Read more

Asset-or-Nothing Put Option

An asset-or-nothing put option is an option with two possible outcomes: a fixed amount if the market value is below the strike price and no payment at all if it is higher than the strike price. A typical put option will have a market value based on the difference between the market price of the underlying asset and the strike price for that asset. Read more

Average True Range (ATR)

Average true range (ATR) is a technical indicator that measures the volatility of an asset's average daily price movements. Average true range starts with the concept of "true range." True range (TR) is calculated by choosing the largest number from the following: Current high less current low Current high less previous close Current low less previous close Use the absolute value of each metric to ensure positive numbers and pick the largest. Read more

Back Fee

A back fee is associated with exercising a compound option. Many investors know that they don’t always have to make outright purchases or sales of securities; they can also use puts and calls. Read more

Backdating

In the finance world, backdating usually refers to the practice of changing the dates of option grants to one that is earlier than the actual grant date in order to place a lower exercise price on the options and thus enhance the potential profits from the exercise of those stock options.The practice sometimes also occurs in the insurance industry, whereby policy issuers make the effective date of a policy (or claim) earlier than the application date in order to obtain a lower premium for the customer (or obtain better claim results). Read more

Backspread

A backspread is a trading strategy whereby the investor buys a set of options with one strike price and sells a similar set of options with a lower strike price. For example, John Doe wants to adopt a backspread strategy for some Company XYZ calls. Read more

Bear Spread

A bear spread is a strategy used in options trading.A trader purchases a contract with a higher strike price and sells a contract with a lower strike price. Read more

Bearish Engulfing Pattern

A bearish engulfing pattern occurs in the candlestick chart of a security when a large black candlestick fully engulfs the small white candlestick from the period before. This pattern usually occurs during an uptrend and is believed to signal the start of a bearish trend in the security. The bearish engulfing pattern can be illustrated in the following manner using candlestick charting: In this example, the smaller white candlestick is overshadowed (or engulfed) by the larger black candlestick. Read more

Black-Scholes Model

The Black-Scholes model is a formula used to assign prices to European options. The model is named after Fischer Black and Myron Scholes, who developed it in 1973. Read more

Bollinger Bands

Bollinger Bands are used as a technical analysis indicator.They are formed by using a 20-day moving average as a centerline and then tracing two bands, each one standard deviation wide, on either side of the moving average. Read more

Breadth of Market Theory

Breadth of market theory refers to a concept that the number of securities rising or falling in a market can predict the future strength of that market. The breadth of market theory is employed in technical analysis to predict market strength. Read more

Broken Date

Broken dates, also known as "odd dates," are arbitrary maturity dates that do not necessarily match the duration of the bond, option, futures contract, forward contract or other maturing instrument. For example, let's assume that a futures contract for shares of Company XYZ is three months long and is issued on April 1. Read more

Bullish Engulfing Pattern

A bullish engulfing pattern occurs in the candlestick chart of a security when a large white candlestick fully engulfs the smaller black candlestick from the period before. This pattern usually occurs during a down trend and is thought to signal the beginning of a bullish trend in the security.  The bullish engulfing pattern can be illustrated in the following manner using candlestick charting: In this example, the smaller black candlestick is overshadowed by the larger white candlestick.This indicates the stock opened the second period lower than the previous close and tried to fall lower during the trading period. Read more

Buy-Write

A buy-write is an options strategy whereby an investor writes (sells) a call option at the same time he/she buys the underlying. In a buy-write, which is very similar to a covered call, an investor sells a call option and buys the underlying simultaneously. Read more

Call Loan Rate

The call loan rate, also known as the "broker loan rate", is the interest rate charged on the call loans used by brokerage houses to fund clients' margin trading accounts. When banks or other lenders provide brokerage houses with call loans to help cover their clients' margin accounts, they charge an interest rate called the call loan rate.  The call loan rate fluctuates each day and compounds daily until the loan is repaid or called by the bank. Read more

Call on a Call

A call on a call is a type of compound option.It is a call option on a call option. Read more

Call on a Put

A call on a put is a type of compound option.It is a call option on a put option. Read more

Call Option

A call option is a contract between a buyer and a seller that gives the option buyer the right (but not the obligation) to buy an underlying asset at the strike price on or before the expiration date.The buyer pays a premium to the seller in exchange for this right. Read more

Call Over

The phrase call over is used to describe the exercising of a call option. A call option gives its owner the right to buy an asset at a set price (the strike price) on or before a certain day (the expiration date). Read more

Call Premium

A call premium is the price of a call option.It is not the same as the strike price.  Supply and demand of the call option determines its premium, but the famous Black-Scholes options pricing model offers a common (though somewhat complex) method for calculating call premiums at any point. Read more

Call Ratio Backspread

A call ratio backspread is a trading strategy whereby an investor uses long and short option positions to simultaneously hedge against loss and maximize profit if stock prices go up.The strategy differs from butterfly spreads and condor spreads in that it has unlimited upside potential. Read more

Call Warrant

Call warrants are securities that give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy a certain number of securities (usually the issuer's common stock) at a certain price before a certain time. Occasionally, companies offer call warrants (usually simply called "warrants") for direct sale or give them to employees, but the vast majority of call warrants are "attached" to newly issued bonds or preferred stock. Read more

Called Away

"Called away" refers to an investing scenario in which one party to an options contract has the obligation to deliver an underlying asset to the other party to the contract. There are three common situations in which an asset may be called away: Callable Bond is Redeemed Before Maturity Callable bonds give the company issuing the bonds the option to redeem them (or buy them back from you) before the designated maturity date. Read more

Cambist

A cambist is an expert in foreign exchange. In the old days, a cambist relied on interpreting books of information about exchange rates between various currencies. Read more

Cancel Former Order

Cancel former order is a specific type of trade order a client places with a broker in order to cancel an unfilled buy or sell order. For example, if a client has an outstanding order to buy 100 shares of Company XYZ at $15 per share and decides he wants to buy the shares at the current market price of $17 per share, he must submit a cancel former order for the pending instructions and replace it with a new order to buy at the market price. Read more

Candlestick

Candlestick charts are often used in technical analysis to track price movements of securities, derivatives and currency over time. Each candlestick is made up of three parts: the upper shadow, the lower shadow, and the real body. Read more

Cash Settlement

A cash settlement is a payment in cash for the value of a stock or commodity underlying an options or futures contract upon exercise or expiration. Options and futures contracts are valued based on an underlying security or commodity that may be purchased or sold upon exercise (determined by a price) or expiration (determined by a date). Read more

Chartered Market Technician (CMT)

A Chartered Market Technician (CMT) is an individual who has been certified by the Market Technicians Association. The Market Technicians Association (MTA) grants the Chartered Market Technician (CMT) designation to candidates who have shown proficiency in technical market analysis as demonstrated in a series of three professional examinations. Read more

Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT)

The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) is a commodity futures and options exchange.Several dozen types of contracts trade on the CBOT, and the exchange facilitates hundreds of millions of these trades each year. Read more

Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE)

The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) is an exchange used for trading standardized options contracts, including stock options, LEAPS, interest rate options, foreign currency options, and index options. Originally created in 1973 as an extension of the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) became the first exchange to offer standardized options trading. Read more

CNN Effect

The CNN effect refers to a major negative impact on consumer spending as a result of breaking news. CNN (which was later joined by MSNBC, BBC World News and Fox News) offers minute-by-minute updates on breaking events at home and abroad. Read more

Collar

A collar option strategy, also known as a "hedge wrapper," is used to lock in the maximum gain and maximum loss of a stock.To execute a collar, an investor buys a stock and an out-of-the-money put option while simultaneously selling an out-of-the-money call option. Read more

Combination Trade

A combination trade is an option strategy where the trader takes a position in both call and put options in the same underlying stock.While there are multiple types of combination trades, in this section we will look at a very popular trade called a long straddle. Read more

Compound Option

A compound option is the opportunity to buy or sell an option. Let’s assume John Doe buys a call on an option to purchase 100 shares of Company XYZ at $25 per share by March 31. Read more

Covered Call

A covered call is a call option that is sold against stock an investor already owns. For example, assume that on January 1, Charlie owns 100 shares of IBM stock. Read more

Currency Risk

Currency risk, also called foreign-exchange risk or exchange-rate risk, is the risk that changes in the relative value of certain currencies will reduce the value of investments denominated in a foreign currency. Currency risk may be the single biggest risk for holders of bonds that make interest and principal payments in a foreign currency. Read more

CUSIP

CUSIP stands for "Committee on Uniform Securities Identification Procedures" and refers to a 9-digit alphanumeric code assigned to all security issues approved for trading in the United States and Canada. The American Bankers Association initially developed the CUSIP system in 1967. Read more

D-Mark

D-mark is slang for deutschmark, the national currency of Germany until it joined the European Union in 2002. For example, let's say you're at a cocktail party looking to impress some Wall Street currency traders. Read more

Daily Cut-Off

Daily cut-off is a term signifying the end of the trading day for foreign exchange markets. For example, let’s look at the markets for Japanese and American currencies. Read more

Daily Trading Limit

A daily trading limit is the maximum gain or loss allowed on a derivative or currency in one trading day. For example, let's say that a forward contract on Company XYZ stock has a trading limit of X. Read more

Dark Pool

A dark pool is trading activity that occurs directly between parties without the use of an exchange, thereby keeping the transactions private. Institutions usually create dark pools. Read more

Darvas Box Theory

Named after famous ballroom dancer Nicolas Darvas, the Darvas box theory is a trading technique based on 52-week highs and volumes. To implement a Darvas box technique, an investor simply looks at stocks with heavy trading volume and then buys those stocks when they rise above their 52-week highs. Read more

Data Smoothing

Data smoothing is a statistical technique that involves removing outliers from a data set in order to make a pattern more visible. For example, let's say that a university is analyzing its crime data over the past 10 years. Read more

Death Cross

A death cross is a technical indicator that occurs when a stock's short-term moving average falls below its long-term moving average. Market technicians believe moving averages define the trend and provide support or resistance. Read more

Deferred Payment Option

A deferred payment option is an option contract for which the payment is deferred until, and paid not sooner than, the contract’s expiration date. A deferred payment option operates no differently from a standard vanilla option contract with the exception that payment, should the holder choose to exercise the option, will not be received until the expiration date. Read more

Delivery Option

A delivery option is incorporated into an interest rate future contract and allows the writer to specify the time and place of delivery as well as the asset to be delivered. An interest rate future contract contains an underlying short position supplied by the writing counterparty. Read more

Delta

Delta is the ratio comparing the change in price of an underlying asset to the change in price of a derivative.It is one of the four main statistics, known as "Greeks," used to analyze derivatives. Read more

Derivative

A derivative is a financial contract with a value that is derived from an underlying asset.Derivatives have no direct value in and of themselves -- their value is based on the expected future price movements of their underlying asset.  Derivatives are often used as an instrument to hedge risk for one party of a contract, while offering the potential for high returns for the other party. Read more

Descending Triangle

The descending triangle is a pattern observed in technical analysis.It is the bearish counterpart of the bullish ascending triangle pattern. Read more

Devaluation

Devaluation refers to a decrease in a currency's value with respect to other currencies. A currency is considered devalued when it loses value relative to other currencies in the foreign exchange market. Read more

Doji Candlestick

A doji candlestick is a significant signal in the technical analysis of financially traded assets. If prices finish very close to the same level (so that no body or a very small real body is visible), then that candle can also be read as a doji. There are four types of doji candlesticks -- common, long-legged, dragonfly and gravestone. Read more

Double Bottom

The double bottom -- one of the many charting patterns used in technical analysis -- is characterized by a fall in price, followed by a rebound, followed by another drop to a level roughly similar to the original drop, and finally another rebound. The double bottom charting pattern is among the most commonly occurring charting patterns, and closely resembles the letter "W". Read more

Dow Theory

Dow Theory is an analysis that explores the relationship between the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) and the Dow Jones Transportation Average (DJTA).When one of these averages climbs to an intermediate high, then the other is expected to follow suit within a reasonable amount of time. Read more

Dragonfly Doji

A dragonfly doji is the most uncommon candle of the four different types of doji candlesticks.As with any doji, the dragonfly depicts a situation in which supply and demand are in equilibrium, thus possibly signaling an important reversal. Read more

E-Micro Forex Futures

E-micro forex futures are currency futures contracts that are a 10th the size of a standard futures contract.  Forex futures are financial contracts giving the buyer an obligation to purchase a certain currency (and the seller an obligation to sell that currency) at a set price at a future point in time.Let’s say you manufacture jewelry in the United States but plan to open a plant in Japan. Read more

Early Exercise

Early exercise refers to a situation in which an option holder has the right to exercise or assign an option before its expiration date. The option holder may decide to exercise the option before it reaches maturity by buying or selling the option. Read more

Elephants

Elephants are large institutions that make big trades. CalPERS (the California Public Employees' Retirement System) is the nation's largest pension fund. Read more

Embedded Option

An embedded option is a provision in a security (typically a bond) that gives either the issuer (the company) or the investor the right to take some action in the future. Different from a stand-alone option, an embedded option is an option that is embedded into the stock, bond, etc., and there may be more than one embedded option in a security. Read more

Equity Linked Foreign Exchange Option (ELF-X)

An Equity Linked Foreign Exchange Option (or ELF-X) is a put option or call option that shelters an investor from foreign exchange risk.It enables an investor to sell a foreign stock position or portfolio at a future date (the expiration date of the option contract) without the risk of foreign exchange loss. Read more

European Option

A European option is a type of put or call option that can be exercised only on its expiration date. Suppose an investor, John, buys a European call option on March 1st that expires on the third Friday in March. Read more

Evening Star Candlestick Formation

The bearish evening star candlestick formation is a major reversal candlestick pattern. In many cases, only one candle is necessary to put a trader on high alert that a reversal may be happening. Read more

Exchange Rate

An exchange rate between two countries' currencies indicates the value of one currency relative to the other.  Let's say the current exchange rate between the dollar and the euro is 1.23 $/€.This means that to obtain one euro, you would need 1.23 dollars. Read more

Exchange-Rate Risk

Exchange-rate risk, also called currency risk, is the risk that changes in the relative value of certain currencies will reduce the value of investments denominated in a foreign currency. Exchange-rate risk may be the single biggest risk for holders of bonds that make interest and principal payments in a foreign currency. Read more

Exercise Price

An exercise price is the price at which the holder of a call option has the right, but not the obligation, to purchase 100 shares of a particular underlying stock by the expiration date. Options are derivative instruments, meaning that their prices are derived from the price of another security. Read more

Exotic Option

An exotic option is any option contract comprising attributes not common to most contracts which result in complicated valuation schemes.It is the opposite of a plain vanilla option. Read more

Expiration Date

The expiration date is the last day an options contract can be exercised.After that, the contract becomes null and void. Read more

Exponential Moving Average (EMA)

An exponential moving average (EMA) is a moving average for time-series data which places greater weight on more recent data. An exponential moving average places exponentially greater weight on data in a time series as the data becomes more recent. Read more

Extended Trading

Extended trading is the pre-market or after-market trading that occurs on electronic market exchanges either before or after regular stock market trading hours. In the United States, extended trading occurs between 8:00 a.m. Read more

FactSet

FactSet is a financial data and software company. FactSet's software platform offers real-time news, quotes and tools that help analysts screen for certain securities and test portfolio models. Read more

Fintech

Fintech describes emerging technology that is used to deliver financial services in new and innovative ways, to both consumers and businesses alike. Read more

First In, First Out (FIFO)

Curious about this accounting method? Discover more about the importance of – and principle behind – FIFO. ​ Read more

Fixed Exchange Rate

A fixed exchange rate pegs one country's currency to another country’s currency.It is also known as a pegged exchange rate. Read more

Flag Formation

The flag formation is a technical analysis pattern that occurs when there is a straight upward move in a stock.  The flag formation movement is often nearly vertical, and at the very least is extremely steep.The move is so rapid, in fact, that on a daily chart a trendline can't even be drawn. Read more

Floating Exchange Rate

A floating exchange rate refers to changes in a currency's value relative to another currency (or currencies). Floating exchange rates mean that currencies change in relative value all the time. Read more

Foreign Currency Effects

Foreign currency effects refer to the fluctuations in returns on offshore investments as a result of changes in the value of the investment's denominated currency against that of the domestic currency. Investors who hold securities issued in foreign countries bear the effects of foreign currency fluctuations as manifest in lower or higher returns upon repatriation to the domestic currency. Read more

Foreign Exchange (Forex)

Also known as forex (or FX), foreign exchange is an over-the-counter market where individuals, banks, and businesses convert one currency into another.It is considered the largest liquid market in the world. Read more

Foreign-Exchange Risk

Foreign-exchange risk refers to the potential for loss from exposure to foreign exchange rate fluctuations. Foreign-exchange risk is similar to currency risk and exchange-rate risk. Read more

Forward Contract

A forward contract is a private agreement between two parties.It simultaneously obligates the buyer to purchase an asset and the seller to sell the asset (at a set price at a future point in time). Read more

Futures Contract

Futures contracts give the buyer an obligation to purchase an asset (and the seller an obligation to sell an asset) at a set price at a future point in time. The assets often traded in futures contracts include commodities, stocks, and bonds. Read more

Hammer Candlestick

The hammer candlestick is a technical indicator that typically appears after a prolonged downtrend.Here is an example of a hammer candlestick: During the period of the hammer candlestick, the stock or index experiences strong selling. Read more

Hangman Candlestick

The hangman candlestick has a very long shadow and a very small real body.Typically, it has no upper shadow (or at the very most, an extremely small one). Read more

Hard Currency

Hard currency is currency that has been adopted as an acceptable payment method in multiple countries. Hard currencies are generally issued by developed countries that have a strong industrial economy accompanied by a stable government. Read more

Hard Loan

A hard loan is a loan between a lender and borrower in different countries that is denominated in a hard currency. For example, a hard loan from a lender in Cambodia to a borrower in Thailand may be denominated in U.K. Read more

Head and Shoulders Pattern

The head and shoulders pattern consists of four distinct parts: the left shoulder, the head, the right shoulder, and the neckline.Each of these four must be present for the formation to exist. Read more

Head Trader

A head trader manages the trading functions of a financial institution. For example, if John Doe is the head trader at Company XYZ, he supervises the other traders, ensures that all the trades are compliant with local and federal regulations, and is responsible for ensuring that Company XYZ's trading department is making money for the company. Read more

High Wave Candlestick

The high wave candlestick has a very small real body, and it typifies a stock or index plagued by uncertainty.  The spinning top has small upper and lower shadows, whereas in the high wave the shadows are longer, revealing more volatility.Here is what the high wave candle looks like: High wave candlesticks portray situations where the market is having difficulty coming to a consensus on a security's value. Read more

Hindenburg Omen

The Hindenburg Omen is a technical indictor that attempts to predict market crashes. The Hindenburg Omen is triggered when three complex conditions are met: 1) The number of new daily 52-week highs and lows on the NYSE is more than 2.2% of all securities traded that day. Read more

In Play

A stock is in play when it is widely believed to be a takeover target. Let's say Company XYZ has a ton of cash on its balance sheet, and activist investors have been pressuring it for nine months to sell. Read more

Inactivity Fee

An inactivity fee is a fee charged by brokerages to clients whose infrequent trading does not satisfy a minimum trading requirement. A brokerage house earns revenue from fees and commissions charged on accounts. Read more

Incentive Share Option

An Incentive share option, or ISO, is a type of company share option granted exclusively to employees. It confers an income tax benefit when exercised. Read more

Incentive Stock Option (ISO)

Incentive stock option (ISO) is a type of company stock option granted exclusively to employees.It gives the employee the right, but not the obligation, to purchase shares of a company, usually the option holder's employer, for a fixed price by a certain date. Read more

Index Option

Introduced in 1981, index options are call or put options on a financial index comprising many stocks.  Index options usually have a contract multiplier of $100, meaning that the price of an index option equals the quoted premium times $100.Unlike options in shares of stock or even commodities, it's not possible to physically deliver the underlying index to the purchaser of an index option. Read more

International Currency Exchange Rate

An international currency exchange rate is the rate at which one currency converts to another. For example, if the international currency exchange rate for one U.S. Read more

Intrinsic Value

Intrinsic value has two primary connotations in the finance world.In the options-trading world, the term refers to the difference between the option's strike price and the market value of the underlying security. Read more

Key Currency

A key currency is a currency used to set the exchange rate in an international transaction. Let's say Country A has a tiny economy and an unstable government. Read more

Key Reversal

A key reversal is a one-day trading pattern that may signal the reversal of a trend.Other frequently-used names for key reversal include "one-day reversal" and "reversal day." Depending on which way the stock is trending, a key reversal day occurs when: In an uptrend -- prices hit a new high and then close near the previous day's lows. Read more

Ladder Option

A ladder option is an option contract that allows the holder to earn a profit as long as the underlying asset's market price reaches one or more strike prices before the option expires. A traditional option contract gives the holder the right to buy (call option) or sell (put option) an underlying asset at a preset price, known as the strike price, by the contract's expiration date. Read more

Large Trader

A large trader is a person or entity that trades more than 2 million shares or $20 million worth of shares in a single day, or 20 million shares or $200 million worth of shares in a single month. Let's say Company XYZ is a pension fund that holds $1 billion of assets for a teachers union. Read more

Last Trading Day

The last trading day is the last time traders may trade a derivative contract before it expires. Derivative contracts (for example, options and futures) have an expiration date, at which time the terms of the contract become null. Read more

Leg

In the brokerage world, a leg is an individual component of a multistep trade. Let's say John Doe wants to do an options straddle, which involves buying call and put options with the same expiration date. Read more

Leg Out

Legging out means to unwind part of a transaction. Let's say John Doe conducts an options straddle, which involves buying a call and a put with identical expiration dates. Read more

Long Straddle

A long straddle is an options trading strategy that involves purchasing both a call option and a put option for a particular asset with identical strike prices and expiration dates. Because a long straddle involves purchasing both a call and put option with the same strike prices, a trader who uses this strategy will profit if the price of the underlying asset deviates from the original strike price in either direction. Read more

Long-Legged Doji Candlestick

Long-legged doji candlesticks are one of four types of dojis -- common, long-legged, dragonfly and gravestone.All dojis are marked by the fact that prices opened and closed at the same level. Read more

Long-Term Equity Anticipation Securities (LEAPS)

Long-Term Equity AnticiPation Securities (LEAPS) is a registered trademark of the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE).LEAPS are virtually identical to traditional exchange-traded options, but they expire up to three years in the future, which is much longer than traditional options' nine-month maximum. Read more

Major Downtrend

A major downtrend, or bear market, is when financial assets and markets -- as with the broader economy -- fall steadily for an extended period of time. A major downtrend is when each successive decline of the primary trend carries the market to lower lows and lower highs, lasting from several months to several years. Read more

Major Uptrend

A major uptrend, or bull market, is when financial assets and markets -- as with the broader economy -- move in an upward direction for extended periods of time. A major uptrend is when each successive advance of the primary trend peaks and troughs higher than the one preceding it, and can last from several months to several years. Read more

Market Arbitrage

Market arbitrage is a trading strategy whereby a trader sells a security in one market and buys the same security in another market. The practice of market arbitrage is based on assuming that an asset traded worldwide is priced differently in different markets. Read more

Market Order

A market order is an order to trade a stock at the current market price.If you do not give your broker additional instructions, the trade will automatically be entered as a market order. Read more

Market Performance Committee

The Market Performance Committee is responsible for maintaining effective and organized trading operations on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The Market Performance Committee consists of several members of the NYSE who closely observe the performance of trading specialists for individual stocks. Read more

Market Surveillance

Market Surveillance is a unit of the NASDAQ stock exchange whose function is to ensure that all trading is conducted in a compliant manner. The Market Surveillance unit of the NASDAQ stock exchange is responsible for monitoring trading activity. Read more

Market Technicians Association (MTA)

The Market Technicians Association (MTA) is a professional association for technical analysts. The MTA is a nonprofit association that fosters an environment of ethics and professionalism among Chartered Market Technicians (CMTs). Read more

McClellan Oscillator

The McClellan Oscillator was first designed by Sherman and Marian McClellan in 1969.It is an excellent tool for determining the overbought or oversold condition of the stock market. Read more

Measuring Principle

The measuring principle allows traders to set a specific minimum price target when trading a stock.This technique works with any well-defined technical analysis pattern, such as a head and shoulders, rectangle or triangle. Read more

Mini-Sized Dow Options

Mini-sized Dow options are leveraged option contracts that use the Dow Jones Industrial Average as the underlying asset. Bought and sold on the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), mini-sized Dow options have a leverage ratio of 5:1. Read more

Minor Downtrend

A minor downtrend is a corrective movement in the market -- lasting less than three weeks -- that goes against the direction of a secondary uptrend. The minor trend is the last of the three trend types in Dow Theory -- the other two types are primary and secondary trends. Read more

Minor Uptrend

A minor uptrend is a corrective movement in the market -- lasting less than three weeks – that goes against the direction of a secondary downtrend. The minor trend is the last of the three trend types in Dow Theory -- the other two types are primary and secondary trends. Read more

Moving Average

The moving average is a popular technical indicator which investors use to analyze price trends.It is simply a security's average closing price over the last specified number of days. Read more

Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)

Moving Average Convergence Divergence, or MACD (pronounced "Mack-Dee") is a technical analysis indicator developed by famous market technician Gerald Appel.  The MACD is used by traders to determine when to buy or sell a security, based on the interaction between a line constructed from two moving averages and a "trigger line." The MACD line is constructed from two moving averages -- a 12-period, or faster moving average, and a 26-period, or slower moving average.The MACD calculation subtracts the 26-period from the 12-period to create a single line. Read more

Naked Call

A naked call is an options strategy in which an investor sells a call option unassociated with units of the underlying security. In a naked call strategy, the sale of a call option is predicated on the writing party's belief that the market price of the underlying security will not exceed the specified strike price prior to the expiration date. Read more

Naked Option

Naked option refers to an option contract which does not comprise ownership of the underlying security by the purchasing or selling party.It is the opposite of a covered option. Read more

Naked Put

A naked put is a put option which is unaccompanied by the actual units of the underlying security specified in the contract. The seller, or writer, of a naked put option incorporates a specific quantity of a given security as an underlying in which he does not hold an actual short position. Read more

Naked Warrant

A naked warrant is a warrant that is not attached to a bond or preferred stock. Warrants are securities that give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy a certain number of securities (usually the issuer's common stock) at a certain price before a certain time. Read more

Narrow Basis

In the futures market, a narrow basis occurs when the spot price of a commodity is close to the futures price of the same commodity. For example, let's say the price of a bushel of wheat is $1 right now (this is called the spot price). Read more

National Market System (NMS)

The national market system (NMS) is a system that regulates the disclosure and execution of trades across all exchanges.  Congress established the National Market System in 1975. Read more

Negative Carry Pair

Used in foreign exchange (forex), a negative carry pair refers to a situation in which the investor buys the currency of a country with low interest rates and shorts the currency of a country with high interest rates.It is the opposite of a positive carry pair trading strategy. Read more

Negative Directional Indicator

A negative directional indicator (known as negative DI) is a technical measure of a downtrend's momentum. Mathematically speaking, a negative directional indicator exists when the difference in a security's low price for two periods is bigger than the difference in the security's high price over the same two periods. Read more

Net Option Premium

A net option premium is the difference between the price paid to purchase an option and the price received from the sale of a different option. The formula for net option premium is: Net Option Premium = (Price of Options Sold - Commission on sale) - (Price of Options Purchased - Commission on Purchase) Let's assume investor X buys 100 options of XYZ Company for $10 and then sells 100 options in XYZ Company for $12. Read more

Net Present Value (NPV)

Net present value (NPV) reflects a company’s estimate of the possible profit (or loss) from an investment in a project.Companies must weigh the benefits of adding projects versus the benefits of holding onto capital. Read more

New Highs/New Lows

As the name implies, new highs/new lows represents the number of all stocks making new 52-week highs or lows.The result is graphed, and the aggregate number of new highs and new lows is used as a market timing tool. Read more

OEX

OEX is the ticker symbol of index options on the S&P 100, which trade on the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE). The Standard & Poor's 100 index (S&P 100) is a subset of the famous S&P 500 index. Read more

Offsetting Transaction

An offsetting transaction is a transaction that cancels out the effects of another transaction. Offsetting transactions are common in options and futures markets. Read more

Offshore Banking Unit (OBU)

An offshore banking unit is a bank branch in another country. For example, let's assume that Bank XYZ is an American bank with a branch in Bermuda. Read more

On Balance Volume (OBV)

On Balance Volume (OBV) was designed by Joseph Granville to track the flow of volume in and out of a stock or index.Essentially, OBV is a running total of volume. Read more

Open

In the stock markets, open refers to the beginning of the trading day or the price of a security at the beginning of the trading day. The New York Stock Exchange has the most famous opening bell. Read more

Open Outcry

Open outcry is a trading mechanism that uses verbal bids and offers.It is usually conducted in trading pits on futures and options exchanges. Read more

Option

An option is a financial contract that gives an investor the right, but not the obligation, to either buy or sell an asset at a pre-determined price (known as the strike price) by a specified date (known as the expiration date). Options are derivative instruments, meaning that their prices are derived from the price of their underlying security, which could be almost anything: stocks, bonds, currencies, indexes, commodities, etc.  Many options are created in a standardized form and traded on an options exchange like the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), although it is possible for the two parties to an options contract to agree to create options with completely customized terms. Read more

Option Pricing Theory

Option pricing theory is the theory of how options are valued in the market.The Black-Scholes model is the most common option pricing theory. Read more

Options Backdating

Options backdating occurs when a company grants an option that is dated prior to the date the company granted the option. For example, let's assume Jane Smith is the CEO of Company XYZ. Read more

Options Clearing Corporation (OCC)

The Options Clearing Corporation (OCC) is a clearinghouse for equity options and is a guarantor of the obligations in listed options contracts.  The OCC confirms, certifies and clears contract trades. It also acts as a market maker and trading specialist for a variety of options contracts. Read more

Options Contract

Options contracts are agreements between a buyer and seller which give the buyer the right to buy or sell a particular asset at a later date (expiration date) and an agreed-upon price (strike price).  They’re often used for securities, commodities, and real estate transactions.In other words, buyers can purchase them much like other types of assets within brokerage accounts.  What Are Call & Put Options? Read more

Out of the Money (OTM)

"Out of the money" describes an option that is worthless if exercised today.In the case of a call option, the option has no intrinsic value because the current price of the underlying stock is less than the option strike price. Read more

Pegged Exchange Rate

A pegged exchange rate, also known as a fixed exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate in which a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another country's currency or another measure of value, such as gold. Generally, there are two ways in which countries can value their currency in the world market. Read more

Point-and-Figure Chart

A point-and-figure chart is a graph which records discrete price changes without accounting for an associated period of time.They are often used in technical analysis as a means of predicting future price changes. Read more

Pre-Market Trading

Pre-market trading is the trading that occurs on electronic market exchanges before regular stock market trading hours begin. In the U.S., pre-market trading occurs between 8:00 a.m. Read more

Price Action

Price action is a term often used in technical analysis to interpret and describe price movements of securities.  Technical trading revolves around chart and pattern analysis, and when patterns change dramatically, technical traders often refer to this as price action.  Price action isn't just about the amount of a security's price change; it also describes how prices behave when they reach certain high and low points.For example, an analyst might conclude that the market as a whole is going up when a certain security or index price rises above a 52-week high and then keeps setting new 52-week highs over a period of time. Read more

Price by Volume (PBV) Chart

A price by volume (PBV) chart is a horizontal histogram that shows a cumulative total of how many shares of a stock traded at a given price. Mechanically speaking, a PBV chart is simply price, plotted as a line on the X axis, and volume, plotted on the Y axis as a bar. Read more

Price Channel

In technical analysis, a price channel is an upper limit (called the resistance) and a lower limit (called the support) in which a security's price tends to stay. Price channels can slope up (indicating bullish sentiment) or down (indicating bearish sentiment); they don't have to simply go "sideways." The important geometric characteristic is that the resistance and support lines are parallel, as shown in this price channel for ChevronTexaco (NYSE: CVX): The channel lines themselves are often based on multiday moving averages or logarithmic scales that reflect price movements in percentage terms. Read more

Price Persistence

Also called relative strength, price persistence is the tendency of a security's price to stay on trend relative to a market index such as the S&P 500.It is a measure of momentum. Read more

Price Rate of Change

The price rate of change is simply the percentage change in a security's price between two periods.  The formula for the price rate of change is: Price Rate of Change = (Price at Time B - Price at Time A) / Price at Time A For example, let's say Company XYZ's share price was $10 yesterday and was $5 a week ago.Using the formula above, we can calculate that the price rate of change is:  Price Rate of Change = ($10-$5) / $5 = 100% The price rate of change can be used to measure not just the direction of a trend but the momentum or speed of a stock price trend. Read more

Price-Based Option

A price-based option is a derivative based on the price of an underlying debt security, usually a bond. A price-based option gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell (depending on whether the option is a call or a put) the underlying bond for a specific price (the strike price) on or before the option's expiration date.  For example, let's say you purchase a price-based option on bonds of Intel (INTC) with a strike price of $1,010 and an expiration date of April 16th. Read more

Publicly Traded Partnership

A publicly traded partnership is a limited partnership that is traded in a capital market. Typically, a publicly traded partnership is a partnership between the limited partners who provide the capital (or at least the initial capital) for the company and the general partners who manage the company. Read more

Put Option

A put option is a financial contract between the buyer and seller of a securities option allowing the buyer to force the seller (or the writer of the option contract) to buy the security. In options trading, a buyer may purchase a short position (i.e. Read more

Put-Call Parity

Put-call parity refers to the relationship between put and call options for a given security, strike price and expiration date.Under put-call parity, the option prices should match, yielding no profit or loss. Read more

Put/Call Ratio

The put/call ratio is a popular sentiment indicator based upon the trading volumes of put options compared to call options.The ratio attempts to gauge the prevailing level of bullishness or bearishness in the market. Read more

Qualifying Disposition

A qualifying disposition is the sale, transfer or exchange of stock that an investor acquires from an incentive stock option (ISO) or employee stock purchase plan (ESPP) and is taxed at the capital gains rate. For example, let's assume that John Doe works as a financial analyst in Company XYZ. Read more

Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative analysis is the use of non-quantifiable methods to evaluate investment or business opportunities and make decisions.This is different from quantitative analysis, which relies on a company's income statement, balance sheet and other quantifiable metrics. Read more

Quantitative Analysis

Quantitative analysis is the use of math and statistical methods to evaluate investment or business opportunities and make decisions. In portfolio management, quantitative analysis is often used to mathematically determine when to buy or sell securities. Read more

Quote Currency

Also called secondary currency or counter currency, a quote currency is the currency being purchased in a currency pair. Four main pairs of currencies are most commonly traded in the foreign exchange markets. Read more

Quote Stuffing

Quote stuffing occurs when traders place a lot of buy or sell orders on a security and then cancel them immediately afterward, thereby manipulating the market price of the security.Manipulating the price of shares in order to benefit from the distortions in price is illegal. Read more

R Squared

R-squared, usually represented as R2, is a technique that evaluates the statistical relationship between two series of events.It is commonly used to describe the portion of a security's movement in the market relative to the movement of a related index. Read more

Rainbow Option

A rainbow option is an option linked to two or more underlying assets. Just as rainbows have many colors, options can have many underlying assets. Read more

Rate of Change

Rate of Change (ROC), is the percentage change in price over a specified time frame.It is one of the most basic ways to measure momentum. Read more

Rectangle Formation

A rectangle formation describes a price pattern where supply and demand are in approximate balance for an extended period of time.In such a scenario, the shares tend to move in a narrow range, hitting resistance at the rectangle's top and finding support at its bottom. Read more

Regression

Regression is a statistical method used in finance and other fields to make predictions based on observed values.It is a measure of how correlated a group of actual observations are to a model’s predictions. Read more

Relative Strength

Also called price persistence, relative strength is the tendency of a security's price to follow the trend of an index like the S&P 500.It is a measure of momentum. Read more

Relative Strength Index (RSI)

The Relative Strength Index (RSI) was first developed by renowned technical analyst J.Welles Wilder. Read more

Relative Strength Line

The relative strength line compares a stock's price performance against that of the overall market, usually as measured by the S&P 500.However, if the trader desires, the comparison can be made to another stock or index. Read more

Resistance

In technical trading analysis, resistance is an upper limit in a price channel in which a security’s price tends to stay. Price channels can slope up (indicating bullish sentiment) or down (indicating bearish sentiment); they don’t have to simply go “sideways.” The important geometric characteristic is that the resistance lines and support lines (the opposite of the resistance) are parallel, as shown in this price channel for ChevronTexaco (CVX). Read more

RSI Indicator

The RSI indicator mirrors and anticipates price patterns in the underlying stock or index chart.The indicator's designer, Welles Wilder, intended for the RSI Indicator to help traders spot chart formations not obvious on a bar chart. Read more

Rule of 72

The "rule of 72" is a method of estimating how long it will take compounding interest to double an investment. The rule of 72 is a method used in finance to quickly estimate the doubling or halving time through compound interest or inflation, respectively. Read more

Russian Option

A Russian option is a type of lookback option which does not have an expiration date. As a lookback option, a Russian option may be exercised according to American or mid-Atlantic settlement rules based on the underlying security's most profitable market price during the life of the option. Read more

Scalping

Scalping is a form of day trading that involves earning small profits on large volumes of securities. A day trader is a very active securities trader who holds securities for a very short time (generally one day or less). Read more

Seat

A seat is a license to trade on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange, either as an agent for someone else or for his or her own personal accounts (in which case, the person is called a floor trader).  The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, also known as the Big Board) is the first and most popular stock exchange in the world. Read more

Shooting Star Candlestick

The shooting star candlestick is a chart formation consisting of a candlestick with a small real body, and a large upper shadow.This pattern represents a potential reversal in an uptrend. Read more

Speculation

Speculation is a method of short-term investing where traders essentially bet on the direction that an asset's price will move.Who Is a Speculator?  Technically, a speculator is anyone who buys or shorts securities with the expectation of a favorable price change.    A speculator believes that XYZ Company stock is overpriced, so they may short the stock, wait for the price to fall, and make a tidy profit.  It's possible to speculate on virtually every security, though speculation is especially concentrated in the commodities, futures, and derivatives markets. Read more

Spinning Top Candle

Spinning tops have small real bodies, and they portray a stock or index plagued by uncertainty.The spinning top has small upper and lower shadows. Read more

Spread Trade

A spread trade occurs when an investor simultaneously buys and sells two related securities that are bundled as a single unit.Each of the transactions is referred to as a "leg." The purpose of a spread trade is to net a profit from the difference in the two legs -- known as the spread. Read more

Springs

Springs are false breakouts that can trap the unsuspecting trader.Spring patterns quickly reverse, with the stock or index then often testing the opposite end of the trading range. Read more

Springs and Upthrusts

Springs and upthrusts are false breakouts that can trap the unsuspecting trader.Both patterns quickly reverse, with the stock or index then often testing the opposite end of the trading range. Read more

Stochastics Indicator

The stochastics indicator is a momentum indicator that shows the location of the current closing price relative to the high/low range over a set number of periods. The stochastics indicator tries to identify turning points by measuring how fast prices are rising or falling. Read more

Stock Option

A stock option gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to purchase (or sell) 100 shares of a particular underlying stock at a specified strike price on or before the option's expiration date.There are two kinds of options: American and European. Read more

Straight Line Basis

Straight line basis refers to a method of calculating the depreciation of an asset.  Straight Line Basis calculates depreciation which is an accounting measure of the "loss" of value of an asset over time.  In other words, depreciation represents the value an asset losses each time it is used. Depreciation is measured over a period of time -- called the "useful life of the asset."   Each asset has an established useful life. Read more

Strike Price

Strike price, also referred to as “exercise price,” is the specific price at which an investor can exercise an option to buy or sell an option contract’s underlying security, such as stocks, bonds, and commodities. The strike price of an option is a fixed dollar amount that stays the same during the entire option contract term. Read more

Subscription Privileges

Subscription privileges are a clause in an option, security, or merger agreement that gives the investor the right to maintain his or her percentage ownership of a company by buying a proportionate number of shares of any future issue of the security. Subscription privileges are sometimes called "subscription rights," "anti-dilution provisions," or "anti-dilution provisions." Subscription privileges are particularly relevant for convertible preferred stock. Read more

Subscription Rights

Subscription rights are a clause in an option, security, or merger agreement that gives the investor the right to maintain his or her percentage ownership of a company by buying a proportionate number of shares of any future issue of the security. Subscription rights are sometimes called "anti-dilution provisions," "preemptive rights," or "subscription privileges." Subscription rights are particularly relevant for convertible preferred stock. Read more

Support

In technical trading analysis, support is a lower limit in a price channel in which a security’s price tends to stay. Price channels can slope up (indicating bullish sentiment) or down (indicating bearish sentiment); they don’t have to simply go “sideways.” The important geometric characteristic is that the resistance lines (which are the opposite of support lines; they are the upper limits of the price channel) and support lines are parallel, as shown in this price channel for ChevronTexaco (CVX). Read more

Support Level

A support level is the price at which stock buyers jump in to purchase shares, establishing a floor beneath which it's difficult for the price to fall. Support, along with its cousin, resistance, are extremely important concepts in swing trading, and they are predicted by drawing horizontal trendlines on a stock price chart. Read more

Swap Spread

A swap spread is the difference between the fixed rate component of a given swap and the yield on a Treasury item or other fixed-income investment with a similar maturity. Companies engage in swaps in order to benefit from an exchange of comparative interest rate advantage. Read more

Swing Trading

Swing trading is a short-term strategy used by traders to buy and sell stocks whose technical indicators suggest an upward or downward trend in the near future -- generally one day to two weeks. Swing trading uses technical analysis to determine whether or not particular stocks might go up or down in the very near term. Read more

Symmetrical Triangle

The symmetrical triangle is one of three important triangle patterns defined in classical technical analysis.The other two triangles are the bullish ascending triangle pattern and the bearish descending triangle pattern. Read more

Synthetic Collateralized Debt Obligation (Synthetic CDO)

A synthetic collateralized debt obligation is a collateralized security which is backed by derivatives such as swaps and options contracts. A synthetic collateralized debt obligation, commonly called a synthetic CDO, seeks to generate income from swap contracts, options, and other non-cash derivatives rather than straightforward debt instruments such as bonds, student loans, or mortgages. Read more

Synthetic Futures Contract

A synthetic futures contract comprises call options accompanied by put options in order to imitate the attributes of a futures contract. A synthetic long futures contract can be simulated using a short put option in conjunction with a long call option. Read more

Tape Is Late

When trading volume is so high that the ticker quotes are lagging behind to keep up with reporting the trades, we say the tape is late. Let's say that trading volume on the NYSE quintuples one day after the government announces a sweeping tax reform and monetary policy change that prove very beneficial for some companies and very detrimental for other companies. Read more

Technical Analysis

Technical analysis is a methodology that makes buy and sell decisions using market statistics.It primarily involves studying charts showing the trading history and statistics for whatever security is being analyzed. Read more

Technical Rally

A technical rally is a price increase brought on by traders reacting to signals from technical analysis. A technical rally occurs after a security has experienced a substantial price decline and begins to recover its market value. Read more

Time Value

In the options trading world, there are two components that make up an option's price.The first is intrinsic value (which accounts for the underlying security's perceived value), and the second is time value. Read more

Trailing Stop Loss

A trailing stop loss order (or trailing-stop) is a special type of trade stop order that manages risk and offers profit protection.This exit strategy adjusts the stop price of a stock or stocks by a certain percentage below the market price. Read more

Trend Analysis

Trend analysis is a technical analysis of the movement of a stock based on past performance. A trend analysis is a method of analysis that allows traders to predict what will happen with a stock in the future. Read more

Tweezers Candlestick Pattern

The tweezers candlestick pattern is a formation that always involves two candles.At a tweezers top, the high price of two nearby sessions are identical, or very nearly so. Read more

Uncovered Option

Also known as “being naked,” an uncovered option is the sale of an option involving securities the seller does not own.It is the opposite of a covered option. Read more

Underlying Asset

An underlying asset is a security on which a derivative is based. For example, options are derivative instruments, meaning that their prices are derived from the price of another security. Read more

Vanilla Option

A vanilla option refers to a normal option with no special features, terms, or conditions. Options come in a variety of "flavors." A plain vanilla option offers the right to purchase or sell an underlying security by a certain date at a set strike price.  In comparison to other option structures, vanilla options are not fancy or complicated. Read more

Variability

Variability is the degree to which a data series deviates from its mean (or in the accounting world, how much a budgeted value differs from an actual value). For example, let's say Company XYZ stock has the following prices: The average of these prices is $21.33. Read more

Vest Fleece

A vest fleece occurs when a company accelerates the vesting of its employee stock options. For example, let's assume that John Doe receives options to buy 2,000 shares of Company XYZ, his employer, for $10 a share. Read more

Warrant

Warrants are securities that give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy a certain number of securities (usually the issuer's common stock) at a certain price before a certain time.Warrants are not the same as call options or stock purchase rights. Read more

Warrant Premium

A warrant premium is the percentage difference between the market price of a security and the price an investor pays for that security when buying and exercising a warrant.The formula for the warrant premium is: Warrant Premium = 100 x [(Warrant Price + Exercise Price – Current Share Price) / Current Share Price] Warrants are securities that give the holder the right (but not the obligation) to buy a certain number of securities (usually the issuer's common stock) at a certain price before a certain time. Read more

Wash Trading

Wash trading occurs when an investor sells a security at a loss, then purchases the same or a substantially similar security within 30 days of the sale. Let's assume an investor owns 100 shares of XYZ Company and sells these shares on May 1 for a $1,000 loss. Read more

Weak Currency

A weak currency is a currency that is going down in value. A currency's value fluctuates all the time. Read more

Weak Longs

Weak longs are investors who buy a stock (known as being "long"), but who will sell it at the first sign of a price decline. Weak longs tend to be traders, not investors. Read more

Weak Shorts

Weak shorts are investors who short sell a stock (known as being "short"), but who will buy it back at the first sign of a price increase. Short-term traders typically only enter a short position long enough to capture a quick gain on their investment. Read more

Witching Hour

The witching hour is the last hour of the trading day. The witching hour occurs between 3 and 4 p.m. Read more

Xenocurrency

Xenocurrency is a currency that trades in foreign markets. For example, Euros trade in American markets, making the Euro a xenocurrency. Read more

Xetra

Xetra is a trading system owned by the Deutsche Borse (German stock exchange). Started in 1997, about 250 participants (mostly brokerages, dealers, and market makers) in 19 countries use Xetra, which is an electronic trading system for stocks, bonds, warrants, ETFs and other securities. Read more

XPO

An XPO is a perpetual option. An option gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to purchase (or sell) 100 units of a particular underlying security at a specified strike price on or before the option's expiration date. Read more

Zero Cost Collar

A zero cost collar is a short-term option trading strategy that offsets the volatility risk by purchasing a cap and a floor for the price of a derivative. A zero cost collar strategy would combine the purchase of a put option (i.e. Read more

Zero-Sum Game

In finance, a zero-sum game refers to trades or investments in which one investor gains when another investor loses. Futures and options trading is generally a zero-sum game; that is, if somebody makes a million dollars, somebody else loses a million dollars. Read more