What is a Job Market?
How Does a Job Market Work?
As with any market, there is a supply and a demand for employment opportunities that directly affects wage and salary levels. Labor supply and demand depends on an economy's unemployment level. A low unemployment rate places upward pressure on wages and salaries because employers compete with one another for a smaller number of job seekers. Conversely, a high unemployment rate forces wages and salaries down because a larger number of job seekers compete with one another for fewer available jobs. Assuming a constant supply of jobs, this phenomenon can be expressed graphically as follows:
The of the red demand curve to the right represents a decrease in the unemployment rate. This results in an upward shift in wages and salaries on the y-axis. Similarly, a shift to the left would suggest a rise in the unemployment rate and a commensurate decline in wages and salaries.
The overall wage and salary levels in the job market represent an average of multiple industries and types of work. At a given point in time, the supply and demand for labor in the job market can vary from sector to sector.