G7 bonds are generally regarded as less risky than bonds issued by other countries. Accordingly, they are often more liquid than sovereign debt from other countries and are sometimes preferred by cons

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A gadfly is a shareholder who publicly criticizes a company's executives at the annual shareholders meeting.  

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A gain, also called a capital gain, is an increase in the value of an investment. It is the difference between the purchase price (the basis) and the sale price of an asset. Thus the formula for gain

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The gambler's fallacy is a situation in which a gambler believes that a string of past events will change the probability of future events occurring.  

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A gambling loss is any money lost in lottery tickets, slot machines, table games (craps, poker, blackjack, etc.), bingo games, racing bets and keno.

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A game changer is a person or thing that radically changes an industry or a company.  

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Game theory is a tool used to analyze strategic behavior by taking into account how participants expect others to behave. Game theory is used to find the optimal outcome from a set of choices by analy

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Gap insurance is insurance that covers underwater cars or RVs.  

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Auto body shops can be dangerous places. Accordingly, garage liability covers this very special kind of risk. However, it usually doesn't cover damage that the auto body center does to the cars in

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Also called wage execution, a garnishment is a process under which money owed or paid to a borrower is given to a creditor instead.

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The purpose of the gas guzzler tax is to discourage the manufacture of inefficient cars. The sticker on a new car should disclose the amount of gas guzzler tax that a manufacturer has paid on a car. T

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GDP gap refers to the disparity between an economy's actual total output and its possible total output.

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GDP per capita is a country's gross domestic product (GDP) per person. Essentially, this measures the amount of goods and sales a country produced per person, on average.

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G&A expenses appear on the income statement. They are not part of the cost of goods sold but can constitute a significant portion of a company's expenses. Because this category often houses the sa

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A general ledger (GL) is a consolidated record of a company's accounting entries.

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A general obligation bond is a municipal debt issue that is secured by a broad government pledge to use its tax revenues to repay the bond holders.

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A general partner is a member of a partnership that can incur debt or obligations on behalf of the partnership and is personally liable for those debts or obligations.

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Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) is a framework of accounting standards, rules and procedures defined by the professional accounting industry, which has been adopted by nearly all publi

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A generation gap is a difference in philosophies between generations.

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A generic brand is a nondescript brand of product that does not have a widely recognizable logo and is sometimes called the "house brand."

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A gift tax is a federal tax on anything of value that one person gives to another.

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Gifted stock is stock that one person gives to another person or entity.

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A gifting phase is when a person begins planning for or actively begins giving away wealth as part of his or her estate planning.

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Gilts are bonds issued by the British government. India's government bonds are also called gilts.

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Ginnie Mae is the nickname for the Government National Mortgage Association. Ginnie Mae guarantees the timely payment of interest and principal on certain mortgage-backed securities (MBS).  

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The Glass-Steagall Act was passed by Congress in 1933. It prohibited commercial banks from conducting brokerage or investment banking activities. The act was largely a product of the Great Depression,

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Global Investment Performance Standards (GIPS) are ethical standards for asset-management companies. They were established by the Association for Investment Management Research.

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A global recession occurs when global gross domestic product growth is 3% or less.

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Countries have built economic partnerships that include trade, investment, capital flow, labor migration, and technology. Globalization is a term used to describe the integration of national economies

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Gnomes of Zurich is a slang, and often derogatory, term referring to Swiss bankers.

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A go shop period is a window of time during which public companies can solicit competing purchase offers.

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A godfather offer is a tender offer that is so generous that turning it down would be a breach of fiduciary duty.

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Going concern refers to the assumption that a company has the resources to continue operating in the foreseeable future. A bankrupt company or a company near bankruptcy is the opposite of a going conc

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The term going private refers to a company's departure from listing shares on any exchange. It is the opposite of going public.

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Going public refers to a company's first issuance of stock on the open market. In most cases, the offering, called an initial public offering (IPO), makes the company's stock accessible to a l

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Gold bugs are people who are fans of investing in gold.

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The AMEX Gold BUGS Index (also known as HUI) is one of two major gold indices that dominate the market. BUGS is an acronym for "Basket of Unhedged Gold Stocks." The index was introdu

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A gold bull is someone who believes the price of gold will go up. 

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A gold certificate is a piece of paper that entitles the bearer to a certain amount of actual gold.

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A gold fix occurs when the The London Gold Market Fixing Ltd. sets the price of gold.

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A gold fund is an exchange-traded fund (ETF) or mutual fund that invests in gold.

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A gold option gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell a specific quantity of gold at a specified strike price on the option's expiration date.

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The Gold Reserve Act of 1934 nationalized gold and fixed its price.

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The gold standard is a monetary system in which the representative currency is based on a fixed amount of gold held by the central government.

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The gold-silver ratio is measure of how many ounces of silver it takes to buy an ounce of gold.

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Goldbrick shares are shares of stock that appear valuable but are actually worthless or worth very little.

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Goldbricker refers to coating something with gold so as to pass it off for something valuable, though colloquially, the term refers to an unproductive person.

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A golden boot is a financial package meant to encourage an employee to retire early.

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A golden bungee is part of an executive's agreement that provides significant financial benefits to the executive upon termination as well as the opportunity to "spring back up" into a new

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In the trading world, a golden cross occurs when a stock's short-term moving average rises above its long-term moving average.

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A golden hammer is a rule of thumb that people depend on too much.

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Golden handcuffs are financial incentives designed to keep talented employees from leaving a company.

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A golden handshake is essentially a severance agreement between an employee and employer.

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A golden hello is slang for a signing bonus.

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A golden life jacket is a compensation package offered by an acquirer to executives of the company it is acquiring. It is the same as a stay bonus.

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A golden parachute is an agreement between a company and an employee (usually a high level executive) that provides significant financial benefits to the employee upon termination.

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The golden rule is very simple: treat people the way you want to be treated. In the business world, it also refers to fundamental principles of government spending: cover current spending with existin

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A golden share gives the holder the right to veto changes to a company's charter. Golden shares exist primarily in U.K.-based companies.

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A Goldilocks Economy is one which enjoys sustained economic growth and low inflation.  This balance is attractive to investors because it allows for a market-friendly monetary policy from the Fed

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Goldman 360 is an online portal to Goldman Sachs's investment management system.

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The Goldman Sachs Commodity Index (GSCI) is a commodities index now owned by Standard & Poor's.

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Good 'til Canceled, or GTC, is used to refer to an order to buy or sell a stock at a set price that remains in effect until the investor cancels the order or the trade is completed.

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Good delivery occurs when all the requirements for transferring title to a security from the seller to the buyer have been met.

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A good faith estimate is a written estimate of the fees due at closing for a mortgage.

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Good faith money is money a buyer uses to prove to a seller that he or she intends to complete a transaction. In real estate, good faith money is also called earnest money. It is not the same as a dow

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Good this month refers to a type of trading order is automatically canceled if it is not filled by the end of the month in which the client makes the order.

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Good this week is a type of trade order that is automatically canceled if it is not filled by the end of the week in which the client makes the order.

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A good through order is a trade order with a deadline. Usually, it is a stop loss or limit order. 

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Goodness of fit (also known as a chi-square goodness of fit) is a statistical term referring to how far apart the expected values of a financial model are from the actual values.

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A goods and services tax (GST) is simply a tax on goods and services for domestic consumption. This tax system is in place in about 160 countries, including Canada, India, Vietnam, Aust

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Also known as work in process (WIP), goods in process are the component of a company's inventory that is partially completed. 

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Goodwill is the excess of purchase price over the fair market value of a company's identifiable assets and liabilities. 

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Generally, a goodwill impairment occurs when a company A) pays more than book value for a set of assets (the difference is the goodwill), and B) must later adjust the book value of that goodwill.

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The goodwill-to-assets ratio describes the percentage of a firm's total assets that can be explained by the amount of goodwill on the balance sheet. 

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Gordon Gekko is a character from the 1987 Oliver Stone movie Wall Street and the 2010 sequel, Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps. Michael Douglas played Gordon Gekko in both movies.

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The Gordon Growth Model, also known as a version of the dividend discount model (DDM), is a method for calculating the intrinsic value of a stock, exclusive of current market conditions. The model equ

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A gorilla is a company that controls most of the market for a product or service.

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The Government Accountability Office (GAO) investigates, with congressional approval, the federal government's spending.

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Founded in 1921, the Government Accounting Office (GAO) is an independent, nonpartisan agency that studies how the federal government spends taxpayer money.

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A government bond is debt issued by the government.

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In the US, government sponsored enterprises, or GSEs, are quasi-governmental, privately-held entities established to improve, and at times make possible, the flow of credit to specific sectors of the

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A grace period is a period of time, usually about 10 days, during which a past due amount can be paid with little or no penalty.

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A grandfather clause is a clause that is included as part of a new law that exempts specific parties from the law due to practices that were in place prior to the law's implementation.

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In the business world, a grant usually refers to a stock option grant. However, the term can also refer to federal funding for research, business ventures or partnerships.

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In the legal world, a grantee is a person who receives something.

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In the legal world, a grantor is a person or entity creating a trust.

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In the investing world, a gray market exists when people begin trading shares that have not been issued yet. In the business world, a gray market is the novel but not always illegal process of obtaini

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The Great Depression is a severe global economic contraction that began in the United States and spread throughout the rest of the world in the 1930s.

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A green shoe option is a clause contained in the underwriting agreement of an initial public offering (IPO). Also known as an over-allotment provision, it allows the underwriting syndicate to buy up t

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Greenback is a slang term for the U.S. dollar. This name is derived from the green color of U.S. paper currency.

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Greenmail is an acquisition tactic whereby the acquirer attempts to obtain a controlling interest in a target by buying shares at a premium from the target's shareholders.

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Greenwashing is the act of misleading customers and potential customers into believing that a product or service is environmentally friendly.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a quantitative measure of how much an economy produces. It includes the monetary value of both goods and services within a specific nation’s borders. From cars to

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Gross earnings, also known as gross income, represents income before taxes or adjustments. In the accounting world, gross earnings are usually the same thing as gross profit (that is, revenue min

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Gross interest is the amount of interest an account or investment earns before deducting taxes, fees or other charges. It is expressed as a percentage.

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Gross margin is a required income statement entry that reflects total revenue minus cost of goods sold (COGS).  Gross margin is a company's profit before operating expenses, interest payments and

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Gross national product (GNP) is the sum of all domestic and foreign output created by citizens of a given country. It can be measured by spending or by income. GNP includes activities by citizens and

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Gross profit is a required income statement entry that reflects total revenue minus cost of goods sold (COGS).  Gross profit is a company's profit before operating expenses, interest payments

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Gross profit margin is a measure of a company’s profitability, calculated as the gross profit as a percentage of revenue. Gross profit is the amount remaining after deducting the cost of goods sold

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Gross receipts, also called gross sales, usually refers to a company's revenue before subtracting discounts and returns.

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Gross sales usually refers to a company's revenue before subtracting discounts and returns.

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Group banking is offered by some banks to incentivize a whole group of people, like employees of a company, to have a relationship with the banking institution.

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Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon whereby pressure within a group to agree results in failures to think critically about an issue, situation or decision.

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Growth at a reasonable price (GARP) is an investment strategy that combines tenets of both growth and value investing by finding companies that show consistent earnings growth but don't sell at ov

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A growth company is characterized by a rate of growth higher than that of the overall economy.

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Growth stocks are fast-growing, higher-risk companies. They tend to be young. They offer a higher chance of higher returns and a higher chance of bankruptcy.

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In general, a guarantee is a promise to take responsibility for another company's financial obligation if that company cannot meet its obligation. The entity assuming this responsibility is called the

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A guaranteed bond is a bond whose interest and principal payments are guaranteed by a third party.

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A guaranteed death benefit is a portion of an annuity that allows the investor's beneficiaries to receive a minimum amount of death benefits.  

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A guaranteed investment contract (GIC) is an agreement between a contract purchaser and an insurance company whereby the insurance company provides a guaranteed rate of return in exchange for keeping

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Guaranteed issuance refers to an insurer’s requirement to sell a product to a customer regardless of health status, age, gender, or other factors that might affect the customer’s use of he

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With a guaranteed loan, a party other than the borrower has promised to take responsibility if the borrower cannot make the payments. The entity assuming this responsibility is called the guarantor.

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In general, a financial guarantee is a promise to take responsibility for another company's financial obligation if that company cannot meet its obligation. The entity assuming this responsibility

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In the stock world, guidance refers to public communication from a company regarding earnings expectations.

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