What it is:
Net lending is an economic measure of whether governments are either providing financial resources to other sectors of the economy or using resources from other sectors of the economy (the latter is called net borrowing).
How it works (Example):
The formula for net lending is:
Net Lending = Revenue - Expenditures
Or, more precisely:
In the simplest terms, if a government receives $1 trillion in revenue and has $250 billion in expenditures, it is a net lender of $750 billion. That is, it has $750 billion to use to buy bonds issued by other countries. It could also return some or all of those funds to taxpayers, or increase government spending on other areas (infrastructure, social programs, etc).